'Crown Rule or Direct Rule

British Raj



  • Calcutta (1858-1912)
  • New Delhi (1912-1947)
  • Shimla (Summer)


  • English
  • Hindustani
  • Urdu


  • Emperor - 1876-1947
    • 1858–1901 Victoria
    • 1901–1910 Edward VII
    • 1910–1936 George V
    • 1936 Edward VIII
    • 1936–1947 George VI
  • Viceroy
    • 1858–1862 Charles Canning
    • 1947 Louis Mountbatten


  • Indian Rebellion 10 May 1857
  • Government of India Act 2 August 1858
  • Indian Independence Act 15 August 1947
  • Partition of India 15 August 1947

British Raj (rāj (राज راج), lit. "reign" in Hindustani) was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; it can also refer to the period of dominion, and even the region under the rule. The region, commonly called India in contemporary usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. After 1876, the resulting political union was officially called the Indian Empire and issued passports under that name. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, the United Nations, and a member nation of the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936.

The system of governance was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person ofQueen Victoria (and who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India), and lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states, the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern half of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh). The eastern part of the Indian Empire became the separate colony ofBurma in 1937, and this gained independence in 1948.